Friday, September 18, 2009

Data mover/SQR Questions


1. Define Data Mover?
Data Mover is People Tool that provides a convenient way to:
0. Transfer application data between People soft data tables
0. Move People soft database across Operating systems and database plat forms.
0. Create release specific archives of People soft database or individual People soft records.
0. Execute SQL statements against any People soft database, regardless of the underlying operating systems or database plat form.
0. Control database security and access.

2. What is the usage of Data mover?
Data mover is used to create edit and run scripts. These scripts may include any combination of SQL commands and Data mover commands for exporting and importing database contents.

3. What is Trace SQL?
Trace SQL logs a variety of information about SQL activity called from People tools and from batch COBOL on a client or server.
OR
SQL Trace records information about the actual API (Application Process Interface)
Calls both our GUI (Graphic User Interface) and COBOL Programs send to the
Database. This tool is useful for debugging SQL
Note: While operating with the Data Mover utility, the trace option should be disabled.
Use SET NO TRACE statement to disable the SQL Trace.

4. What is BOOTSTRAP MODE?
When the Data Mover is launched using the Database Access ID and Password, it is called BOOTSTRAP MODE.
Typically, using Bootstrap mode is necessary for database loading, because there are no People soft security tables established yet. It is also helpful for accomplishing other security-related tasks, such as running Grant_Users and Encrypt_password scripts.
In Bootstrap mode the following commands are not valid export, rename and replace
View.

5. Explain the types of commands in the Data Mover?
A Data Mover script can contain two types of commands.
0. Data Mover commands: Used to export and import database information and to otherwise modify database. Also, used to control script execution, call other Data Mover files and to enter commands.
0. SQL commands: These include both standard and non-standard SQL commands and are used to modify the database.

6. What is SQR? Features of SQR?
*SQR (Structured Query Reports) is a programming language used in data processing and data reporting. SQR program can execute multiple queries.*
Features:
0. More flexible
0. Scalability for Client and Server architecture.
0. Multiple platform portability
0. Multiple RDBMS portability

7. What is a FLAG?
It is an attribute given to programming for processing and generating output destination file.

8. What is difference between .LIS and .SPF file?
. LIS (list file) is used for line printer execution. Normally it is used for printing cheques.
.SPF file is portable format, this is used for all window-based applications with any printer. Normally it is used for MSPAINT, Image, and Graphics.

9. How many types of SQR files are there?
There are 5 types of SQR files….
5. SQC: SQC program files contain commonly included procedures that are called by other SQR programs.
5. . LIS when an SQR reports generate output it is sent to a file with an. LIS extension.
5. . LOG: SQR.LOG file is the output file used by People soft. This file contains all information such as errors and displays statements. That is output to the terminal during the execution of SQR.
5. . MAX: SQR does not dynamically allocate memory. The default program allocations (which were coded for lower DOS memory) usually have to be increased for complex SQR programs.
Note: People soft uses a .MAX file to increase any SQR parameter where default is not adequate for the program. There is one main .MAX file for processing under SQR W (windows) called ALLMAXES.MAX

5. SQT: These program files are precompiled SQR programs. As a People soft 5+ there are no delivered precompiled SQR programs.

10. Explain briefly about flags?
The SQR command supports several flags. Each flag begins with a dash (-). Flags with arguments must be followed directly by the argument with no intervening space.

SQR Command-Line Flags
Flag Description
-A Causes the report output to be appended to an existing file of the user name
-Bnn (Oracle,SYBASE CT-Lib) indicates how many rows to buffer each time data
is retrieved from the database. The default is 10 rows.
-C Specifies that the cancel dialog box appear while the program.
-CB (Callable SQR) forces the communication box to be used.
-DEBUG (xxx) (Sybase) Causes lines preceded by #DEBUG to be compared. Without this
flag, these lines are ignored.
-E(file) Causes error messages to be directed to the named file, or to the default file
report errs. If no errors occur, no file is created.
-F (file) (Directory) overrides the default output file name program .lis
-KEEP In addition to .LIS files, creates an .SPF file for each report that your
program generates.
- LOCK(RR]CS]RO]RL]XX] (SQL Base) Defines the types of locking (isolation level
for the session.
-NR (SQL Base) specifies that the No Recovery mode is used when connecting to the database.
-XCB Do not use the communication box.
-XL Prevents SQR from logging on to the database. Programs run in this
mode cannot contain any SQL statements.
-XMB Disables the error message display so that a program can be run without
interruption by error message boxes.
-XP (SYBASE DB-Lib) Prevents SQR from creating temporary stored pro-
cedures.
-XTB Preserves the trailing blanks in an LIS file.
-ZIV Invokes the SPF viewer after generating program .spf file. Using this flag
implicitly invokes the –KEEP flag to create program .spf file.
-ZMF(File) specifies the full path and name of the SQR Error Message file. The Sqr
err.dat located in the directory indicated by the SQR DIR environment
Variable is the default.

Section1

1. How SQR Programs are evaluated and executed at different times?
FIRST PASS: Or Compile stage. SQR processes the following components of the program.
1. All # include external source files (SQCs) are inserted into the source program.
2. All # commands are evaluated.
3. The setup section is processes including allocation and population of memory arrays created by the load-look up command.
4. Optimization of the SQL data access path is determined.
5. Checks syntax of SQR source program.

SECOND PASS: Actual execution of the program source occurs starting at the begin
Report stopping at the end-report.
1. Process data for the body section.
2. Senses page overflow or response to new-page command in code.
3. Process heading section
4. Process footing section
5. Writes entire page buffer to file.

2. How many types of SQR data elements are there?
Columns, variables, Literal

3. What does SQR report structure(program) consists of or Types of sections in SQR Program?
Report or Program – Determines where SQR will begin and end execution of your report. People soft uses this section to control the flow of processing by calling procedures using the do command, thereby utilizing modular programming.
Setup Section – Contains commands, which describe the general report characteristics (Note: the setup section is preprocessed and is automatically run before the program begins execution. This section can only include SQR commands.
Programming section –
A – Begin – SQL: The SQL paragraph allows you to execute any non-select SQL
Statement.
B. Begin-Document-: Allows you to mix background text. With the data retrieved from the database.
C. Begin-Select: Select paragraph is the heart of the SQR program. For each row of data retrieved from the query, acting as an implicit while loop may also process a set of commands there. Here you specify what columns of data to retrieve from the database. Other procedures may be referenced within a select paragraph, which in turn may contain other select paragraphs.
Note: In begin select SQR requires that columns names be flesh to the left margin and SQR commands be indented.
Heading Section
Footing Section
Procedure Section : A procedure is a list of commands or paragraphs, which are processed when referenced by a corresponding, do command. Procedure names must be unique. Procedures can contain regular SQR commands as well as three special kinds of paragraphs: A. SQL B. Document C. Select

4. Explain Print Function?
The print command, is both explicit and implicit, is the focal point for formatting and processing.
Explicit print is used to print database column referenced by its pseudonym (&column name) or a user defined variable.
The Implicit print is only valid for database columns as they are retrieved in the select para.

5. What are positional co-ordinates?
Printing in SQR is placing output on the page grid. Position syntax is used to define where to place data on the page within a given section.

6. Explain briefly about On-break processing?
On-break option on columns will cause each column to break independently from each other. When a break occurs the following happens, After procedure are processed in descending sequence from the highest level to the level of the current break filed.

7. Difference between ASK V/S INPUT?
ASK : It is requests the user for the value and substitutes the value during compilation. It is used only in the setup section.
INPUT : It requests the user for the value at runtime. (i.e., at execution stage). It can be used anywhere in the programming section.
Note: INPUT is mere efficient than ASK.

8. Define an Array?
An Array can be defined to store intermediate results or data retrieved from the database.

9. Define Process Scheduler?
It is an centralized tool that enables application developers, system administrators and application users to manage People soft batch process. Process Scheduler enables you to schedule running process and create job.

10.Difference between Process and Job?
Process: A process is a single task, program or routine (such as SQR reports or Batch Cobol) that runs either on client or server.
Job: It is one or more process of the same or different type, which can run either in series or Parallel. (A group of process can be combined and run as process job)

Section2

1. What are the sections and paragraphs available?
There are five sections and three paragraphs available in SQR programming. The sections include
a. Begin-setup End-setup.
b. Begin-program End-program.
c. Begin-procedure End-procedure.
d. Begin-heading End-heading.
e. Begin-footing End-footing
And the paragraphs include
Begin-select paragraph.
Begin-SQL paragraph.
Begin-document paragraph

2. Is it possible to increase the array size once defined?
No, it is not possible to increase the Array size once defined

3. What is Load-lookup? Give the Syntax for Load-Lookup?
The LOAD-LOOKUP command defines an array containing a set of keys and values and loads it into memory. With LOAD-LOOKUP, you can reduce the number of tables that are joined in one SELECT. Use this command in conjunction with one or more LOOKUP commands.
Syntax: begin-setup
load-lookup
name=prods
table=products
key=product_code
return_value=description
end-setup

4. Can you Call a SQR from another SQR? How?
We can call one SQR program from another SQR program using Call.callsystem. But this is possible only in UNIX Operating system.

5. Briefly explain Most commonly used SQC's in SQR programs?
: Some of the most commonly used SQC's are
1.STDAPI.sqc : This Is Process Scheduler Interface which is used to initiate and terminate some field values such as Process_instance & Run_cntl_id
2.SETENV.sqc : This is used to set the Default Environment based on the Database such Printer Type, Paper Size,Date formats Etc….
3.NUMBER.sqc : This file contains generalized routines to format numbers.
4.DATETIME.sqc : This file contains generalized routines to format dates and times.
6.RESET.sqc : This is an important Footing SQc.

6. What are the commands used in filehandling of sqr?
Using File Handling we can Import. Steps are
1. Opening a File Using 'OPEN FOR-READING' command.
1. Reading Data From File Using 'READ' command.
Writing Data into Table Using 'BEGIN-SQL' paragraph & 'INSERT' command

7. What are On-break parameters?
ON-BREAK causes the specified action to perform in a tabular report when the value of a field changes. The default action prints the field only when its value changes (PRINT=CHANGE).Mainly used for Redundancy of Printing on a page.

8. How can you Debug SQR programs?
We can Debug SQR using Debugging Commands such as
2. #IF DEBUGxxx
#END-IF
2. DISPLAY and
3. SHOW

9. What is the difference between sqr and sqc?
SQR SQC
1.This is nothing but the Actual 1.This is like a function in SQR.
Source program.
2.This consists of Program Section. 2.This does not consists of program Section.
3.This can be Compiled & Executed. 3.This cannot be Compiled and Executed.
4.We cannot call one SQR from 4.We can call one SQC from another SQC or another SQR
or SQC. SQR program.

10. What are different types of variables in sqr?
Types of variables in SQR are
1. Column Variables.
2. List Variables.
3. System Variables.
4. Document Variables.
5. Substitution Variables.
User Defined Variables

11. Is there any read-only variable in sqr?
Column Variables & System Variables are Read-Only Variables.

12. How to pass Inputs for sqr program while running from windows?
Using ASK & INPUT Commands.

13. How to pass Inputs to the SQR while running through the Process Scheduler?
Using Procedures & SQC's to access data on Run Control Page (Run Control Fields).

14. What is the purpose of Stdapi.sqc
This is a Process Scheduler Interface sqc which is used to initiate and terminate some field
values such as Process_instance & Run_cntl_id

15. What is the SQT file? What are the advantages of SQT files?
SQT' file is nothing but resultant file after the compilation (i.e.) Runtime File. By using this SQT file for Execution we can increase the Performance of the program by reduciong the Compilation Time.

16. What is the SQC used to read data from translate table?
'READXLAT.sqc' is the SQC used to read data from Translate Table.

17. Which section is mandatory in an SQR program?
'BEGIN-PROGRAM' Section is Mandatory for an SQR program.

18. How will you display an image in SQR?
Using 'DECLARE-IMAGE , END-DECLARE' command.

19. What is use of SETENV.SQC?
This is used to set the Default Environment based on the Database such Printer Type, Paper Size, Date formats Etc….

20. How will you perform ERROR handling in SQR?
We can do Error handling in SQR using some command line flags such as –O, -L,-ZMF,-XMB and using Error handling commands such as
ON-ERROR = Skip/Warn/Stop (for Compile time errors)
ON-ERROR = Procedure Name (for execution stage errors).

21. How many ways of performance tuning are there in SQR?
1. Using LOADF-LOOKUP & LOOKUP.
2. Using ARRAYS.
3. Using MULTIPE REPORTS.
4. Using SQT Files.
5. Using –Bnn Command line Flag.
6. Running on BATCH SERVER.
7. Using Proper Programming Logic in SQR such as Using BREAK statement in EVALUATE Command.
8. Proper SQL tuning such as using Sub queries instead of Joins.

22. Can you call procedure in oracle from Sqr? How?
To call a database procedure using Begin-select paragraph, the syntax is as follows:
Begin-select
[(report arguments)]
from Dual
End-select
To call from Begin-sql, the syntax will be
Begin-SQL
;;
End-SQL

23. Can you connect more than one database using one Sqr? How?
Yes.

24. What are the differences between Load lookup and Array
ARRAYS LOAD-LOOKUP
1. Arrays can be declared in any section. 1. Load-Lookup is declared in only in
SETUP section only.
2. Number of rows are not automatically 2. Numbers of rows are automatically added. gives a error if the number of added.
Exceeds the specified number.
3. We should insert data in to Array by 3. Rows are automatically inserted in to
programming. Load-Lookup.
4.We can retrive any number of fields. 4.We can retrive only Two fields from
from a table. a table.
5.We have Length & Data type. 5.We don't have Length & Data type.
6.We cannot directly print from Array. 6.We can directly print from
Load-Lookup.

25. What are the steps required to run the SQR from peoplesoft environment?
Three steps we have to fallow to run the SQR program from the peoplesoft environment (Process Scheduler). These steps include
a. Making the SQR program API aware by calling two procedures (stdapi-init, stdapi-term) from the Begin-program section and including the Stdapi.sqc in the bottom of the program.
b. Create new run control table or using existing run control table and creating run control page, component and register the component. Creating new run control SQC if we create a new run control table.
c. Giving the permission to the user by giving process groups.

26. How to pass command line flags to a sqr report running through process scheduler?
Using override options in the process definition in the Process Scheduler in the People Tools.

27. What are On-break parameters?
ON-BREAK causes the specified action to perform in a tabular report when the value of a field changes . The default action prints the field only when its value changes (PRINT=CHANGE).Mainly used for Redundancy of Printing on a page.

28 .How does peoplesoft Process monitor knows that the process (Say sqr report) is at what stage such as initiated, in process, completed etc
From the Field Value of 'RUNSTATUSDESCR'field from 'PS_PMN_PRCSLIST' table.

29. How can u Debugging SQR programs?
We can Debug SQR using Debugging Commands such as
3. #IF DEBUGxxx
#END-IF
2. DISPLAY and
3. SHOW

30. How to refer a global variable in local procedure?
After special character (ex.#,&) we use underscore(_) after that variable name.

31. What is -Bnn flag?
This is used to specify the number of rows that are to be taken from Dbase to the Buffer because default the system takes 10 rows at a time.

32. What is -Tnn flag?
This is mainly used for testing purpose. We can restrict the system to generate only a specific number of pages instead of generating all pages for testing. This is used in Windows Environment.

33. What is -RS & -RT Flags?
RS is used to generate SPF file ie; stopping the program after the comilation. _RT is used to run the SPF file .This is also one kind of Performance increasing technique by saving the compilation time.
34. What are the sections in Sqr? Which one is necessary?
Setup, Heading, Footing, Program & Procedure Sections. Program section is the Mandatory section.

35. What is -debug command line flag?
This is used for Debugging in SQR.
36. How to place an corporate logo in sqr?
Using "Declare Image" command
37. what are the debugging commands in sqr?
Show & Display are debugging commands
38. what is the difference between them?
Show is used to display more than one variable at a time.
Display is used to display only one variable at a time.

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